Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that employ organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite compound have been hailed a promising photovoltaic (PV) technology that may be able to revolutionize the current PV technology through delivering low cost, high energy conversion efficiency by harnessing sun light. The perovskite compound can be described using a general chemical formula of ABX3 where A = monovalent cations such as methylammonium (MA+), formamidinium (FA+), Cesium (Ce+), B = divalent cations such as Pb2+, Sn2+, and X = monovalent halide anions such as Cl–, Br–, I–. A typical PSC device structure consists of FTO/electron transport layer/perovskite/hole transport layer/gold.
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Currently a certified energy conversion efficiency of over 23% has been achieved with PSC, which is already comparable to commercial crystalline silicon solar cells and even surpass the efficiency of thin film CIGS and CdTe solar cells. Nevertheless, issues such as unsatisfactory device stability, use of precious metals such as gold to achieve high efficiency PSC, hysteresis in current-voltage plot as well as toxicity of lead and the solvents used in fabrication of PSC device are affecting the future of PSCs in terms of commercialization. Our research aims to tackle these problems through in-depth understanding of the factors that cause degradation of PSCs and innovative materials and device engineering. Our ultimate goal is to provide scientific solutions towards the mission of realization of cost-effective, affordable renewable energy through innovative research.